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Emigration of Women to Australia: Forced and Voluntary


This paper delivered to Society of Genealogists, Charterhouse Building, London.

2pm, Wednesday, 31st August, 2005

The forced and voluntary emigration of women to Australian, began with the First Fleet, with 568 male and 191 female convicts on board. By the time transportation ended, in 1853 for New South Wales, Tasmania, Norfolk Island and Moreton Bay, and in 1868 for Western Australia, approximately 158,702 male and female convicts had been transported. About 84,000 of these landed in New South Wales of which, approximately 11,5000 were women. Around 12,000 female convicts went to Van Dieman’s land and Norfolk Island. No Women were sent to Western Australia. The total number of women transported, 24,960, was tiny compared to men, comprising about 15% of all convicts.

Free women also arrived with the First Fleet and continue to emigrate today. Unassisted female emigrants arrived as wives, daughters and mothers, mostly within a family group. These free settlers paid their own passage, and are notoriously difficult to research. Until the 1850s few were listed individually in shipping lists and, if they travelled in steerage, were not recorded at all. The New South Wales State Records hold all immigration records to 1922, when the Federal Government took over responsibility.

Assisted immigrants are almost always easier to find in the records. With government funds involved official records are readily available, and made accessible today for most states. There are indexes to Bounty Immigrants (1828-1842), and for assisted immigrants from the 1840s to the 1890s for New South Wales, Moreton Bay and Victoria. Many indexes for assisted emigrants to Australia are now online and searchable on state library and state archival websites. The majority of the 125,000 free emigrants to 1850 to New South Wales were assisted and men outnumbered women by two to one. Women were a minority group in colonial Australia whether convict or free. The social, economic and political status of Australian women reflected British society but was modified by the rough and ready living and working conditions experienced by early arrivals to the colony. While still under sentence convict women can be traced via marriage applications, assignment registers, conditional pardon lists, convict indents, and tickets-of-leave. It is when they were freed and able to marry, travel interstate and re-located elsewhere, that research becomes more difficult.

When researching convict women it is useful to be aware of the general administration of convicts in the colony, and the social and economic differences experienced by women. Although convict women were sent to all destinations, apart from Western Australia, almost half of all women transported went to Van Dieman’s Land. The records for convicts transported to Tasmania are held in the Mitchell Library in the State Library of New South Wales (ML, NSWSL) , New South Wales State Records. formerly New South Wales State Archives, (NSWSR) and the Tasmania Archive Office (TAO). On arrival most women were assigned to do domestic work for a family. In the first years they were likely to be assigned to individual soldiers or officers. Some assignment records do survive but are patchy. The NSWSR hold indexes relating to assignments, and convict indents. Convict indents or arrivals are progressively being placed online. Perhaps of more use to beginning researchers are the muster and census records, which list every resident in the colony. Census records survive for 1828, 1841 and 1891. Musters recorded the numbers of convicts in the colony, and for New South Wales are found for the years 1787-1825 and for Tasmania 1811-1822. Convicts who gave satisfactory service under assignment were entitled to a Ticket-of-Leave (similar to parole) and if they continued to show good behaviour would gain a Certificate of Freedom. All of these phases of convict administration are well-recorded on the website of the NSWSR at: http://www.records.nsw.gov.au and the Society of Australian Genealogists at http://www.sag.org.au

Although women convicts were subject to the same legal and administrative practices as men their lives were very different. In the early years it was widely believed that assignment of female convicts to male overseers was a form of prostitution. The Parramatta Female Factory in Sydney and the Cascades Female Factory in Hobart, Tasmania were holding depots for arriving female convicts, were prisons for re-offending women, and acted as places of refuge for women mistreated by employers. Prior to this some were housed in the upper floor of the Parramatta gaol but this proved highly unsatisfactory to all concerned. Located on the top floor of the Parramatta Gaol form 1804 and known at first as the “manufactory” the female factory it was used to house female convicts who were not assigned. A ‘new’ Parramatta Female Factory, “surrounded by a stone wall, nine and a half feet high” was completed in 1821 further away near the Parramatta River. It closed in 1848. There is an index to the Parramatta Female Factory compiled from records held at NSWSR and the Cascade Female Factory has a website at http://www.femalefactory.com.au/
The records of the female factories are found in the Mitchell Library, (ML) and the NSWSR. The following is an entry found on the NSWSL website:

Entrance to Female Factory, Parramatta, showing stone bridge
Frame order no. : GPO 1 - 13815

When a female convict was assigned to a family as a servant she moved into a household and can disappear from the records. Similarly, if she married or re-married, or co-habited with someone, it is difficult to trace her movements from place to place, to pinpoint precisely the details of her working life in the colony. This difficulty is less problematic since New South Wales births, deaths and marriages have been put online and more recently with an improved search facility. The story of the convict Mary Holland, is a classic example of how convict women survived once they were in the colony. Holland was sentenced to seven years transportation for stealing bed sheets valued at twenty shillings and a cotton counterpane worth two shillings. Mary Holland, a convict on my father’s side of the family, was nineteen when she was sentenced and she waited for two years in a prison hulk on the Thames before sailing for Botany Bay in 1796. She was finally put on board the French-built Indispensable. It left England with 351 female convicts and took 169 days to complete the voyage.

Like so many other female convicts Mary Holland began her new life in Sydney living in a de facto relationship. She lived with the New South Wales Marine Corp soldier Lauchlin Ross bearing him two children, Donnal or Daniel (1797) and Mary Ann (1799). Researching Lauchlin Ross I was able to find out more detail about Mary Holland. In the early years of the colony officers, men in the Marine Corp, ex-convicts and other male settlers could apply for women servants to be assigned to them. Many women described as 'wives' were in fact cohabiting with their employers, some did of course eventually marry. In fact, Governor Phillip encouraged such convict assignment arguing that convict labour used in this way would lead to greater prosperity and expansion in the fledgling settlement. Officers of the Marine Corp are said to have treated such women well evidenced by some of the long term relationships emerging out of these unions.

That Ross would eventually desert Mary Holland was probably inevitable. When Lauchlin Ross left he took the eldest child Donnal with him, despite the fact that on the birth certificate Donnal was not officially recognised as his son. Ross was able to invoke his social superiority and greater political and economic power and simply walk away with the child. Mary Holland was left destitute with her baby daughter. Mary Holland began a new de facto relationship with Joseph Butler. The de facto relationships, which convict women established, were viewed by the middle classes and the authorities in the colony as prostitution. Yet, some of these unions were long-lasting and caring. Mary Holland and Joseph Butler were together for four years and during this time she had two sons; James, born in 1802 and Sylvester, born in 1804. It is Sylvester Butler who married Ann Elkin, in 1822 to link the Butler name to the Roses on my father’s side of the family.

Mary Holland's life mirrors the uncertainty of many convict women's experiences in the early years of the colony. Few, if any, women convicts were able to return to Britain after expiry of their sentences, only a small number were landholders (and only by default after the death of a husband). The problems of deserting husbands, domestic violence and tough economic conditions did make marriage uncertain and the numbers of convict marriages remained low until after transportation ended. Employment opportunities were few for women and were mostly limited to domestic service. Most convict women, married or not, continued to have at least a partial dependence on the government and are found in official records. While Mary Holland served her sentence she received food and other support from the government, her name appears regularly in the various musters and “victualling” lists. At times desertion, domestic violence and/or poverty forced convict women and their children to seek the help of charitable organisations, orphan schools or churches.

Despite finding Mary Holland in the official records it was difficult filling in gaps in her life in this early period and in the end I was left with a very sketchy story indeed. Often the only information I could find was linked to the birth and/or death of children, or her association with male partners. Her link to Joseph Butler was useful. He arrived in the Second Fleet on the Neptune, and his life in the colony had already been researched and recorded and his link to Mary Holland well established, by the time I began my family history research. After she and Butler ended their relationship in 1804/06 she was alone until 1814 when she was found living with a J. Butterworth in the Windsor district. However, her relationship with Joseph Butler had enduring aspects to it as she was back with him in 1828 described as his servant. Perhaps she was his servant for the purposes of official documentation or perhaps they decided to live together again, in their older years. One can only guess, from this long view in history at the details of the actual circumstances of her life. However it is possible to make some comment about the bonds of family here. In his old age Joseph Butler was cared for by his son Sylvester, whether he also cared for Mary Holland is unknown. She outlived him by more than a decade.

At least convict women are listed somewhere. But it is not always the case we find free women in the available records. Researching women emigrants to Australia and finding out how/where and with whom they lived their lives, presents similar problems as are encountered when researching women more generally. The records for researching free emigrant women are many and varied, but patchy and dispersed. Some, like the Female Emigration Societies, meticulously record the leaving, voyage and arrival of individual women. In Australia there are a bewildering array of government and non-government sources, including those associated with women’s health, maternity and employment. There are specific passenger lists to search such as those managed by the London Emigration Committee these found in the Fawcett Collection, London. Nola Mackey has indexed Sydney newspapers for passengers and crew in and out of Sydney for the period 1830-1842. The Society of Australian Genealogists is compiling an index of passengers arriving with the CD for 1826-1842 near completion. These free passenger indexes are however incomplete and there is no guarantee you will find the person you are looking for. And, as Kay Daniels and others point out, most female emigrants to Australia were not middle class gentlewomen but were generally poor, young and unlikely to be important enough to be officially recognised and recorded.
The Hyde Park Barracks in Sydney was an Immigration Depot for single female immigrants from 1848-1886, and a female asylum from 1862-1886. Caroline Chisholm established her Female Immigrant Home in 1841 and she also worked on a scheme for female emigrants departing England in 1846/1847. Upon arrival in Australia immigrant women could make use of or be supported by such organisations as the Young Women’s Christian Association, Girls’ Friendly Societies, Female Immigration Societies, Boards of Immigration, Traveller’s Aid Societies and various Immigration Agents. Women’s lives were invariably bound up with children and they are found in the lists of charitable organisations, children’s societies, industrial and reformatory schools and orphan schools. Your research journey will certainly be a jigsaw charting the ragged and uneven life events mirroring the uncertain and difficult times young free and convict women faced in the early decades of Australia. Records that have survived from such organisations will be located in the NSWSL or NSWSR and you should check online catalogues as well as other primary databases offered by these repositories.

Researching the life of my great grandmother Nurse Mary Kirkpatrick, who arrived as a twenty-year-old in 1884 from Belfast, and then left her husband in 1889, illustrates some of the complexities of researching free female emigrants. Nurse Kirk, as she became more widely known, was a respected midwife establishing four private hospitals and working in the community from the late 1880s to the 1930s in the McLeay Valley on the mid-north coast of New South Wales. But after my great grand mother died in 1943 the records of her midwifery work and her hospitals, her letters and private papers were lost, possibly thrown away. No one, at the time, thought her life and career important enough to be saved for history. And when I began the research into her life in the late 1970s there was nothing left but memory – family memory and the collective memory of the community.

My grandfather, and Mary’s only surviving son, had died in 1945. His surviving children, my mother and her sisters and brother, had been children when Nurse Kirk was an old woman. Their memories gave me useful insights into the family but little detail on my great grandmother’s actual movements after she first arrived in Australia with her husband Hugh and my grandfather, Dave, aged one. They arrived as assisted immigrants and by the time I did the research there was a paper index for that period, this now online. Finding Mary and Hugh Kirkpatrick and the ship they sailed on was relatively easy. What was difficult however, was charting the detail of her life in those first years, made all the trickier when Mary left Hugh and became a single parent in 1889/90. Mary had a daughter, Mary Ann, in 1886, this child dying a year later, her short life mapping for me where the family lived in Sydney for the years 1884 to around 1886/87. When Mary’s next child was born she was living in Armidale, a town located in the Northern Tablelands of New South Wales, and here she separated from her husband. Once I had the Armidale location I was able to search for the family name in the 1891 Census and it was here I found Mary Kirkpatrick alone as the head of the household. I have not found any further detail on the whereabouts of my great grandfather; he does not appear in any of the marriage or death indexes for any Australian state. It is possible he returned to Belfast but he remains a mysterious and shadowy figure in the research.
How did I fill in the gaps in my grandmother’s life story? I certainly had family memory and this was a starting point for my research. Mary Kirkpatrick trained in midwifery in 1902 and returned to the Macleay Valley working there and establishing four private maternity hospitals. Because she was a midwife and in business I found her in the records of the Australasian Trained Nurses Association, in the records of Register of Licensed Private Hospitals and in some local council records. But the most useful source was the local newspaper the Macleay Argus. Mary Kirkpatrick advertised in almost every edition of this paper from 1902 until she retired in the late 1930s. These brief entries gave me the location of early places she lived and worked in, the dates she moved from one place to another and the names of other midwives who worked with her. In addition, the Macleay Argus contained reports on Nurse Kirk’s community activities, her involvement in the Red Cross, and stories of her pain and anguish when her youngest son was killed in the First World War. None of these stories were remembered by my family.

But I had no stories to tell me how she lived out each day, who her friends were or what she might have believed in, what she felt passionately about. All I had were half-remembered bits and pieces. For example, my mother told me that Nurse Kirkpatrick had many friends in the community. I wasn’t sure what this meant until I decided to look at the lives of the women who worked with her, the lives of some of the women she delivered babies for and also at the broader community around her. This research into the lives and events surrounding my great grandmother’s time in the Macleay Valley proved very fruitful. I traced the lives of all of the other midwives in the Macleay and found that almost every one of these women worked with my great grandmother at one time or another. I found that often she would share a house as well as a midwifery business with one or two of them. I discovered that Nurse Kirk knew them well; that these women were a network of nursing colleagues and friends to each other. Researching the lives of the women she delivered, many of whom became lifelong friends, also filled out the historical and biographical landscape. Certainly I had to research my family because they were central to her life too. But because Mary Kirkpatrick was an independent, professional woman with her life lived well outside the family, these other stories shaped her life too in significant ways. I call this a reconstruction strategy. By reconstructing as many of the lives of the people associated with your female ancestor – including husbands, fathers, brothers or sons, women friends, sisters, neighbours, business associates, friends of the family – you will assemble information that is relevant to her life. And as we all know, the smallest crumb of information is sometimes all we need to lead us into a line of productive research.

It was certainly true that the birth of her children provided crucial information to link Mary Kirkpatrick to a time, a place and family events. Oral history was important too. Without the memories of my mother and of the people of the Macleay Valley my story of the life of Mary Kirkpatrick would not have been possible. Oral history is doubly important for womens’ history as our mothers and grandmothers were less likely to create public written records. Or, as was the case for my great grandmother, they might simply be deemed unimportant and thrown away. Birth and death certificates were especially useful for tracking the family’s movements when they first arrived in the colony. Ordinary families do not get into the records unless they commit a crime or caught up in a scandal. Without the births and, sometimes early deaths of children, it would be impossible to know what happened to the family.
A useful source for immigrant arrivals in Australia before 1850 is to look at the website of the Society of Australian Genealogists. Most of these records also available in major Australian state, university and some public libraries

My great grandmother was an assisted immigrant. But if your female ancestor was an unassisted immigrant, the research problems encountered are more difficult. If you look at the website of the New South Wales State Records their advice for researching unassisted passengers is not encouraging. There are no lists of unassisted passengers comparable to the assisted records and if you do not know the name of the ship your ancestor sailed on, you are faced with the painstaking task of combing through endless and mind-numbing microfilm copies of un-indexed lists of passengers, one ship after another. I have done this for my Kyle ancestors and have concluded the two original Kyle brothers were likely steerage passengers and never recorded. I have been more persistent, but no less successful, researching the voyage of a middle-class woman who arrived here at almost the same time as my great grandmother. I began researching the life, career and family events surrounding Constance Kent and the Road Murder two years ago. The events of the Road Murder are well-known. Sometime during the night of 29th June 1860 the child Francis Savill Kent was taken from his bed and murdered. Five year later Constance Kent, a half-sister, confessed to the murder and was sentenced to death, this commuted to a life sentence, which she served in various English prisons. After her release she emigrated to Australia to join her brother William and other family members. My interest in the case is in her confession, the impact of the murder and subsequent events on the family, her emigration to Australia, and her long working career, which did not end until her death in 1944 at the age of 100. Constance Kent had every reason to hide her identity after she left prison. The Road Murder had been a notorious case, there had been enormous public interest and press coverage at the time of the murder and the confession. She changed her name to Ruth Emilie Kaye and her siblings and half siblings also hid their identity in one way or another. This family were very determined to keep their past well-hidden from the public and thus researching their lives in Australia was doubly complex.

The first difficulty was finding their arrival in the shipping records. Her brother William arrived first in 1884 and is easily found, also his wife and sister Mary Amelia are listed as travelling with him. Her half brother Acland is recorded as arriving in December 1885. Constance Kent left prison in July 1885 and it is known, from various family records, that she travelled to Australia, between then and mid-1886, and was accompanied by her half siblings Florence and Eveline. But it has been impossible to find the actual shipping details of these three women. It is surprising that this is so as they were middle class, cultured ladies who would have travelled in the best ship accommodation they could find. They sailed to Launceston, Tasmania but the relevant records for the several months I want to search in 1886 are missing. I am still searching.

Tracing Constance Kent’s life in Australia has been interesting partly because it is clear that she and her family did not want to be found. Two of her half-sisters married and had children. I am in contact with the descendents from these unions and they tell me that the family was reluctant to talk about Constance Kent. They have given me access to letters, photographs and notes that show that the family knew where Constance was living in Australia under the assumed name of Ruth Emilie Kaye and also information on how secretive the family continued to be about that past. Constance Kent, like my great grandmother, was a professional and there are records of her nurse training and her career progress. She also worked for the New South Wales state government and these records survive. She trained, late in life, as a nurse at Royal Prince Alfred Hospital in Melbourne, she nursed at the Coast Hospital (Prince Henry’s Hospital), Sydney, and she was the matron-superintendent of the Parramatta Industrial School for Girls at Parramatta, in Sydney, for more than a decade. Her last business venture was to manage a Nurses Home at Maitland. All of the administrative/nursing positions Constance Kent held from 1890 through to the 1940s were relatively senior and I have been able to find considerable detail on the competence, skill and nature of her work. As with Mary Kirkpatrick I have researched around Constance looking at the women she worked with, the men who were her supervisors, and the life and times of the family members she emigrated to Australia to be with.
In summary, some of the strategies for finding out more about emigrant and convict women include:

· Birth, death and marriage certificates – the staples of family history research. If women are single look at the marriage and births of their sisters, mothers, aunts, brothers, and cousins. Check the witnesses to marriages as these can reveal significant family relationships; look at the nurse/midwife/witness to a birth as this may show mothers, sisters or other family members take care of birthing. With death certificates look at the informant – was it a nurse, the husband, a close friend?

· Marriage, re-marriage - researching the men in a woman’s life can provide starting points for mapping out her life. Women’s lives are not just reflected through men’s but can be seen as parallel to and explained as a part thereof. Look at the personal, social and political dimensions of how women lived in the period you are researching.

· Local records, especially local newspapers, records associated with their work – Australian towns and villages were small prior to 1900 and local newspaper were more likely to report on minor characters, and indeed women’s lives. I found information in the local newspaper detailing when my great grandmother left town to visit family or when she arrived back. There were reports on fetes, fund raising and events she organised for the community.

· Look at work colleagues, women friends, sisters, neighbours, the community in which she lived – if you do not know anything about how your female ancestor lived then widen your perspective. Look at people around her, the community in which she lived.

· Oral history – if female ancestors are not as likely to be in the official records we need to try and find out as much as we can from remaining relatives, other people who might have known her.

· Other sources -There are many other sources to add to your research of convict and emigrant women: these include letters, diaries, family books, cook books, photographs, sewing books, other memorabilia, trophies/prizes, obituaries, divorce records, electoral rolls, directories, government publications, pioneer registers, council records, court and gaol returns, inquests, charitable records, hospital records, church records, school records and women’s organisations. Begin your search by looking at the New South Wales State Library and State Record collections (their online information is very good) and then move on to other Australian states. There are local, state and national genealogical societies that can help with sources.

· For female immigrants after arrival the following list of Australian organisations could be useful. Look for them in the records of the various state libraries or archives:

· Agents for Immigration, e.g. New South Wales Immigration Agent Reports.
· Assisted and Unassisted Immigration and Bounty Indexes
· Boards of Immigration, e.g. New South Wales Immigration Board Lists
· Girls’ Friendly Societies (in all states)
· Young Women’s Christian Associations (Sydney and Melbourne)
· Benevolent Asylums, ( Sydney and Brisbane)
· Refuge for Fallen Women, (Melbourne)
· Ragged Schools, (in all states)
· Other female refuges, church societies, and private charitable organisations.
· Immigration Aid Societies
· Female Immigrant Homes e.g. as established by Caroline Chisholm in New South Wales.

I was once asked to deliver a paper focusing on lost women in family history – to talk about how difficult it is to find the names of women, the detail of their lives, the stories that can place them more squarely in our family histories. The image of all these lost women, these lost souls, somehow wandering around in our past and no one ever finding them, stayed with me. And it is true. Often even if we find a wife or mother or daughter or several of these, the detail is so sketchy, the information is incomplete. Full names are rarely recorded, and certainly, the details of previous family, marriage and re-marriage, are too often incorrectly noted or just omitted. Women are not lost, of course, but the records, the stories, the official notes, the significant memories have been pushed aside or viewed as less worthy.

When I was looking at the women’s lives associated with my great grandmother, in an effort to find more detail on her life, I found two women who seemed very close to her, a Nurse McCarthy and Nurse Cook. Nurse Adelaide Cook trained in Sydney for six months in 1902, at the same time and at the same hospital, as my great grandmother, and eventually became a partner in the first private hospital my great grandmother established….and later on I found a Nurse McCarthy who was close colleague in another hospital venture in the 1930s, when my great grandmother was older. Both of these women, Nurse Cook and Nurse McCarthy, were close working colleagues and good friends to my great grandmother and I thought it useful to research their lives as well. I completed some of the research at a local museum, with the help of Billie Crawford their research officer. As we trawled through the records one day Billie pulled out a photograph of Nurse McCarthy and her husband, and I saw the name Adelaide McCarthy - a quick search of the obituaries in the local paper and there we had it - Nurse Cook and Nurse McCarthy were the same person…. And yet to that moment, Nurse Cook and Nurse McCarthy, appeared as two different people in the local records and in local histories. Finding out that Adelaide Cook married Michael McCarthy in 1915 and was the same person, a close and long time friend and colleague to my great grandmother, made so much more sense.

It is the age-old research problem for researching women’s lives…We find Mrs. Smith, or Mrs. A. Smith, (the “A” could stand for Alan, the husband, or it could be her name Alice), there is Nurse Brown and Matron Brown, and, of course, Miss Smith,…the missing names and incomplete or incorrect names for women and the lack of rigour in linking not just married names to single names but the problem of when a woman marries several times…all of this imprecision with women’s names complicates the research process unnecessarily. The most difficult part of family history research is finding elusive ancestors who are not listed in the census or are missing from shipping records. Too many of these are women. Such problems were exacerbated in the past because record keeping was inaccurate. But not just poor record keeping can be blamed for all of these omissions. Women’s invisibility in family history is part of a wider historical perspective which relegates womens’ lives, too often, to the invisibility of neglect and omission.. There is no right way to bring about change and redress the imbalance of past histories. But it is important to try and as family historians we are in a unique position to research, record and write about our women ancestors who were brave enough to live the most extraordinary lives. The least we can do is include their stories more vividly, in more detail, and more precisely in our family histories.

Further Reading

Women Convicts:

Alford, K. “Convict and immigrant women before 1851,” in J. Jupped, The Australian People, Angus & Robertson, North Ryde, 1988.

Alford, K., Production or reproduction? An economic history of women in Australia, 1788-1850, Oxford University Press, Melbourne, 1984.

Bateson, Charles, The Convict Ships, 1787-1868, Library of Australian History, Sydney, 1983.

Beddoe, D. Welsh Convict women: A Study of women Transported from Wales to Australia, 1787-1852, S. Williams, Barry, 1979.

Cobley, John, (compiler), The Crimes of the First Fleet Convicts, Angus & Robertson, 1982, (first published 1970).

Crittenden, Victor, A bibliography of the First Fleet, Australian National University Press, Canberra, 1981.

Damousi, Joy, Depraved and Disorderly: Female Convicts, Sexuality and Gender in Colonial Australia, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1997.

Daniels, Kay, Convict Women, Allen & Unwin, St. Leonards, 1998.

Heath, L. M. ‘The Female Convict Factories in NSW and VDL,’ ML MSS, 3618.

Hughes, R. The Fatal Shore: a History of the Transportation of convicts to Australia, 1787-1868, Collins Harvill, London, 1987.
Num, Cora, Convict Records in Australia, the author (http://www.coraweb.com.au/), 2003.
Oxley, Deborah, Convict Maids: The forced migration of women to Australia, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1996.
Reakes, Janet, How to Trace Your Convict Ancestors: Their Lives, Times and Records, Hale & Iremonger, Sydney, 1999.
Robinson, Portia, The Women of Botany Bay: A reinterpretation of the role of women in the origins of Australian society, The Macquarie Library, Sydney, 1988.

Robson, L. L., The Convict Settlers of Australia, Melbourne University Press, 1965.

Salt, Annette, These Outcast Women: The Parramatta Female Factory, 1821-1848, Hale & Iremonger, Sydney, 1984.

Smith, B. A cargo of women: Susannah Watson and the convicts of the ‘Princess Royale’, New South Wales University Press, Kensington, 1988.

Weatherburn, Hilary, “The Female Factory”, in Mackinolty, Judy & Radi, Heather, eds, In Pursuit of Justice: Australian Women and the Law: 1788-1979, Hale & Iremonger, Sydney, 1979.

Women Emigrants

Charlwood, Don, The Long Farewell: The perilous voyages of settlers under sail in the great migrations to Australia, Penguin Books, Ringwood, 1981.

Curtin, Emma, “Gentility Afloat: Gentlewomen’s Diaries and the Voyage to Australia, 1830-1880,” Australian Historical Studies, Vol. 26, No. 105, October, 1995, pp.634-652.

Gothard, Jan, Blue China: Single Female Migration to Colonial Australia, Melbourne University Press, 2001.

Gothard, J. “A compromise with conscience: The reception of female immigrant domestic servants in Eastern Australia, 18601890,” Labour History, Vol. 62, 1992.

Gothard, Jan, “Assisted Female Migration 1860-1920,” in James Jupp, ed., The Australian People: An Encyclopaedia of the Nation, Its People and their Origins, Sydney, Angus & Robertson, Sydney, 1988.

Hammerton, A.J. “Without Natural Protectors: Female Immigration to Australia, 1832-36,” Historical Studies, XVI, 65, 1975,pp.539-566.

Hammerton, A. J. Emigrant Gentlewomen: Genteel poverty and female emigration, 1830-1914, Croom Helm, London, 1979.

Hamilton, Paula, & Gothard, Jan, “The other half: sources on British female emigration at the Fawcett Library, with special reference to Australia,” Women’s Studies International Forum, Vol. 10,No. 3, 1987, pp.305-309.

Kiddle, Margaret, Caroline Chisholm, Melbourne University Press, 1969, (first published 1950).

Knight, M., Bounty Immigration New South Wales 1828 to 1842, Macbeth GS, Software, 2002.

Kyle, Noeline, “She walked with great purpose.... Mary Kirkpatrick and the History of Midwifery in New South Wales,” in M. Bevege, M. James & C. Shute, eds Worth Her Salt: Women at Work in Australia, Hale & Iremonger, Sydney, 1982, pp.3-15.

Kyle, Noeline, Memories & Dreams: A Biography of Nurse Mary Kirkpatrick, Mullumbimby, 2002.

McLaughlin, Trevor, Barefoot and Pregnant: Irish Famine Orphans In Australia, Vol. 1, & Vol.2, The Genealogical Society of Victoria, Melbourne, 1991.

Reid, Richard, & Mongan, Cheryl, A decent set of girls…The Irish Famine Orphans of the Thomas Arbuthnot 1849-1850, Yass Heritage Project, Yass,1996.

Richards, Eric, ed., Visible Women: Female Immigrants in Colonial Australia, Research School of Social Sciences, Australian National University, 1995.

Robinson, Portia, The hatch and brood of time: A Study of the first generation of native-born white Australians, 1788-1828, Volume 1, Oxford University Press, Melbourne, 1988.

Rushen, Elizabeth, Single & Free: female migration to Australia, 1833-1837, Australian Scholarly Publishing, Kew, 2003.

Women in Australian History

Berzins, Baiba, North Coast Women: A History to 1939, Royal Australian Historical Society, Sydney, 1996.

Bettison, Margaret, & Summers, Anne, (compilers) Her Story: Australian Women in Print, 1788-1975, Hale & Iremonger, Sydney, 1980.

Bevege, Margaret, James, Margaret, & Shute, Carmel, eds Worth Her Salt: Women at Work in Australia, Hale & Iremonger, Sydney, 1982.

Carter, Jan, Nothing to Spare: Recollections of Australian Pioneering Women, Penguin Books, 1981.

Daniels, Kay, & Murnane, Mary, eds Uphill all the Way: A Documentary History of Women in Australia, University of Queensland Press, St. Lucia, 1980.

Dixson, Miriam, The Real Matilda: Woman and Identity in Australia 1788 to 1975, Penguin Books, 1976.

Grieve, Norma, & Grimshaw, Patricia, ends Australian Women: Feminist Perspectives, Oxford University Press, Melbourne, 1981.

Grimshaw, Patricia, Lake, Marilyn, McGrath, Ann & Quartly, Marian, Creating a Nation: 1788-1990, McPhee Gribble Publishers, Ringwood, 1994.

Kingston, Bev, My Wife, My Daughter and Poor Mary Ann, Nelson, Melbourne/Sydney, 1975.

Kingston, Beverley, The World Moves Slowly: a documentary history of Australian women, Cassell Australia, Stanmore, 1977.

Mackinolty, Judy, & Radi, Heather, ed, In Pursuit of Justice: Australian Women and the Law 1788-1979, Hale & Iremonger, Sydney, 1979.

Mercer, Jan, ed, The Other Half: Women in Australian Society, Penguin Books, 1975.

Pownall, Eve, Mary of Maranoa: Tales of Australian Pioneer Women, F. H. Johnston, Sydney, 1959.

Radi, Heather, ed, 200 Australian Women: a Redress anthology, Women’s Redress Press, Broadway, 1988.

Schaffer, Kay, Women and the Bush: Forces of Desire in the Australian Cultural Tradition, Cambridge University Press, 1988.

Summers, Anne, Damned Whores and God’s Police: the Colonization of Women in Australia, Penguin Books, 1975.

Teale, Ruth, ed Colonial Eve: Sources on women in Australia 1788-1914, Oxford University Press, Melbourne, 1978.

Thompson, Patricia, & Yorke, Susan, eds Lives Obscurely Great: Historical Essays on Women of New South Wales, Society of Women Writers (Australia), New South Wales Branch, Sydney, 1981.

Windschuttle, Elizabeth, ed Women, Class and History: Feminist Perspectives on Australia 1788-1978, Fontana/Collins, Sydney, 1980.

Women and Family History

DeBartolo Carmack, Sharon, A Genealogist’s Guide to Discovering Your Female Ancestors, Betterway Books, Cincinnati, 1998.

Borchardt, D. H., Checklist of Royal Commissions, Select Committees of Parliament and Boards of Inquiry, Part IV, New South Wales, 1855-1960, La Trobe University Library, Bundoora, 1975.

Eslick, Christine, Hughes, Joy & Jack, R. Ian, Bibliography of New South Wales Local History, New South Wales University Press, Kensington, 1987.

Frost, Lenore, Searching for Mary Ann: Researching women Ancestors in Australia, the author, Essendon, 1994.

Hughes, Joy, N., Local Government … Local History: A guide to N.S.W. Local Government Minute Books and Rate Records, Royal Australian Historical Society, Sydney, 1990.

Hughes, Joy, New South Wales Directories 1828-1950: A Bibliography, New South Wales University Press, Kensington, 1987.

Kyle, Noeline, "Mythology or Genealogy: Male Monopolisation of the Family Tree," Australian Historical Association Conference, University of Sydney, February, 1988.

Kyle, Noeline, "Finding Women in the Unofficial Sources of History," Your Family Tree, 1, (3), 1987, 10-13.

Kyle, Noeline, "Women in Genealogy," Your Family Tree, 1, (1), 1987, 4-7.

Kyle, Noeline, “Our Women Ancestors: Illuminating women on the family tree,” in Burkhardt, G. & Procter, P., (compilers) Bridging the Generations: Fourth Australasian Congress on Genealogy and Heraldry, The Heraldry & Genealogy Society of Canberra, Canberra, 1986, pp.217-225.

Kyle, Noeline, “The ‘Capricious’ Family Tree: Tracing Women Ancestors,” paper presented to the 1987 Annual Convention of Genealogical Society of Queensland, Bardon Professional Centre, 15 August, 1987.

Kyle, Noeline, We Should've Listened to Grandma: Women and Family History, Allen & Unwin, Sydney, 1988.

Kyle, Noeline, The Family History Writing Book, Mullumbimby, 2001.

Kyle, Noeline, "Rethinking the Writing of Family History: Memory, Interpretation, and Thematic Frameworks," National Genealogical Society Quarterly, Vol. 88, No. 4, 2000, pp.299-308.

Kyle, Noeline. Tracing Family History in Australia, Methuen, Sydney, 1985.

McLaughlin, Trevor, From Shamrock to Wattle: Digging up your Irish Ancestor, Collins, Sydney, 1985.

Marshall, Julie, G., The Literature on Royal Commissions, Selection committees of Parliament and Boards of Inquiry Held in Australia 1856-1980, La Trobe University Library, Bundoora, 1990.

Miller, Ann, E., Checklist of Nineteenth Century Australian Colonial Statistical Sources: Censuses, Blue Books and Statistical Registers, (Historical Bibliography Monograph No. 7), History Project Incorporated, 1988.

Newspapers in Australian Libraries: A Union List: Part 2, Australian newspapers, 4th edition, National Library of Australia, Canberra, 1985.

Resembling Female Lives: A Special Issue of the National Genealogical Society Quarterly, Volume 88, Number 3, September 2000.

Vine Hall, Nick, Tracing Your Family History in Australia, Rigby, 1985 (for information on later edition of this and other books on Family History Research in Australia see Gould Genealogy at: http://www.gould.com.au)


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